List of observational facilities

TNA access
5 MAIDO (CNRS, FR) at 21.1°S, 55.4°E
11 FKL (NOA, GR)
13 ISAF (UVA, ES)  at 28.3°N, 16.5°W
14 GRA (UGR, ES)
17 CAO (CYI, CY)

Description of the infrastructures

(1)    CNR IMAA Atmospheric Observatory (CIAO)    
Location (town, country):     Tito Scalo, Potenza, Italy
Web site:
Description of the infrastructure: CIAO combines in an unique site multi-wavelength lidar for aerosol and water vapour vertical profiling performing systematic measurements with operational scanning cloud radar, microwave profiler, sun-photometers and ceilometers. The wide range of measurements provided at the facility makes it an ideal site for calibration and intercomparison campaigns. The site is affected by typical mountain weather strongly influenced by Mediterranean atmospheric circulation. Phenomena like orographically-induced effects on cloud formation can be studied at this location. Moreover, the site is particularly interesting for studying aerosol properties in the Central Mediterranean region.
Services currently offered: CIAO is s one of the most advanced infrastructures for ground based remote sensing in Europe and the unique Mediterranean site equipped by multi-wavelength lidar and scanning cloud radar plus operative instruments. CIAO observatory provided more than 650 rwd accesses in the last 2 years of which 545 rwd to international users. The main equipments currently running at CIAO are multi-wavelength Raman lidar for aerosol and water vapour vertical profiling, CIMEL CE-318 Sun photometer, PREDE POM 02 Sun Photometer, MIRA35 scanning Ka-Band Doppler radar, Scanning microwave profiler MP3014, 905 nm laser ceilometers,1064 nm laser ceilometers, surface radiation station, GPS antennas/receiver, scanning elastic lidar, radiosounding systems, meteo station, pyranometer and all sky imager. CIAO data follow data quality protocol developed in the frame of the international networks and based on redundancy of the instruments.

(2)    Monte Cimone taking advantage of Po Valley facility (CMN)
Location (town, country):     Monte Cimone (Sestola-MO), Italy
Web site:
Description of the infrastructure: The CMN geographical location together with the long-term atmospheric compounds characterization available and the instrumental equipment deployed (complete characterization of aerosol and gases, vertically distributed) make the infrastructure an ideal site to investigate the vertical export of absorbing aerosol and polluted air masses from the Po Valley, one of the European pollution hot spots, to the free troposphere of Southern Europe and Mediterranean basin.
Services currently offered: CMN offers a complete characterization of aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, trace gases composition since 1996. This long-term monitoring activity helps in quantifying the existing trend of climate-altering substances and atmospheric pollutants both in the boundary layer and free troposphere. The following observations are available at CMN: Surface ozone, Carbon monoxide, nitric oxides, sulfur dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halogenated gases, sulfur hexafluoride, VOCs, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, total  aerosol size distribution (based on scattering, time of flight and electrical mobility), total number of particles, aerosol chemistry, PM1 and PM10 mass. All these observations are carried out continuously at 2165 m. Some of these are performed also in the boundary layer, both at urban and rural site, where a complete characterization is also available during field campaigns. Scientists from about 15 European and US research groups have accessed the CMN stations in the last two years. CMN observations follow data quality protocol developed in the frame of the international networks and based on redundancy of the instruments.

(3)    SIRTA Atmospheric Research Observatory (SIR)
Location (town, country):     Palaiseau, France (25 km South of Paris)
Web site:
Description of the infrastructure: SIRTA is a French national atmospheric research observatory dedicated to research on cloud, aerosol, an d trace-gas physical and chemical processes. The infrastructure supports research on formation mechanisms of gaseous and particulate pollution and all physical processes between aerosols and clouds. The SIRTA infrastructure also supports Global Circulation Model and Numerical Weather Prediction model evaluations and studies based on ground and satellite remote sensing synergies.
Services currently offered: Services offered includes access to the observation infrastructure and data composed of permanent routine multi-instrument observations (multi-wavelength Raman Lidar; 95 GHz Doppler Cloud radar; wind profiling Sodar; BSRN surface radiation station; AERONET sunphotometer; GPS receiver; 14-channel microwave radiometer; sonic anemometers and rapid sensors for flux measurements; weather sensors for surface meteorology, and 00 and 12UT radiosonde profiles (Météo-France); Real-time chemical measurements of fine aerosols and other relevant parameters (absorption, light scattering, number size distribution, and possibly CCN); O3 and NO/NO2. VOCs measurements are available (bi-weekly on a routine basis and on-line (GC-FID and PTR-MS) during intensive campaigns). SIRTA offers access to users to organize field campaigns, instrument tests, data analysis and training of young scientists at post-doc, PhD and master level. In the past 4 years over 750 user-access days were provided by SIRTA as part of international field campaigns (250 TNA user-access and 500 user-access days other than TNA). Each year nearly 100 international student-access days are provided as part of international summer schools.

(4)    Puy de Dôme (PUY)
Location (town, country):     Clermont-Ferrand, France
Web site:
Description of the infrastructure: The PUY station is a high altitude station (1465 m a.s.l.) located at the top of a N-S mountain chain, facing prevailing western winds. This feature leads to an absence of valley winds, observed in more complex topographies.  The PUY station is one of the very few high altitude stations worldwide measuring a complete set of in situ measurements of the gas (9 parameters) and particulate (11 parameters) phases, coupled with co-located RADAR, LIDAR and sun photometer measurements at its base (400 m a.s.l.).
Services currently offered: Due to its altitude, the station is well situated to sample different layers of the atmosphere. Previous work shows that the station is representative of the regional background (Asmi  et al. 2011 ; Henne et al., 2010) and measurements were used for evaluating global climate models (Spracklen et al. 2011, Reddington et al. 2012). In addition to the complete set of instrumentation for gaz and particulate phase characterization, specific inlets are available to study aerosol-cloud interactions. A whole air inlet capable of sampling cloud droplets together with interstitial (non-activated) particles (whole air inlet (WAI)), and a second inlet capable of sampling only interstitial particles. These inlets provide the means to measure the chemical and physical properties of CCN (Asmi et al. 2012). This opportunity to sample natural clouds has been a major drive for yearly intensive campaigns designed for aerosol-cloud interactions studies (EUCAARI (2008), EMEP (2009, 2012, 2013), GFG-CNRS (2010), Clermont-Cloud (2013); one to two international team per year).

(5)    Maïdo Observatory – Observatoire de Physique de l’Atmosphère à La Réunion (MAIDO-OPAR)
Location (town, country):     Le Guillaume, La Réunion, France
Web site:
Description of the infrastructure: Maïdo observatory is a high-altitude and remote-site research infrastructure (2160m asl,  21.1°S,  55.4°E, 600m2 building) located at La Réunion in the southwest tropical  Indian Ocean and devoted to perform long-term series of atmospheric observations in the framework of several international networks (NDACC, SHADOZ, AERONET, ICOS, GAW) and to welcome field experiments. Because the observatory is new (official opening in October 2012 after a reconstruction), the reference period is based on the 2013 year. The station is equipped with state-of-the-art instruments: lidars for vertical profiles (temperature, wind, water vapour, ozone, and aerosols), FTIR for molecules’ partial columns, ozone radiosounding, continuous wave cloud-radar, lightning sensor, transient luminous event camera, all sky camera, thermal infrared radiometer, in-situ greenhouse reactive gases and aerosols analysers, in-situ aerosols analysers, chemical filters for aerosol chemistry, and GPS ground-based receiver (water vapor total column).
Services currently offered: Since its opening, one of the main scientific achievements of MAIDO-OPAR has been the calibration and study of performances of the lidars (e.g., the water vapour Raman lidar, Dionisi et al., 2014) which are involved in the NDACC-labelling campaign  MORGANE (Maïdo ObservatoRy Gas and Aerosol Ndacc Experiment) in collaboration with NASA (september-october 2014). MAIDO-OPAR observatory is also part of the ground network for CAL/VAL exercises of sensors on board satellites (e.g., the wind lidar ALADIN on board ADM-AEOLUS, the CO2 total-column spectrometer on board Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2). Several European research teams have already shown interests for MAIDO-OPAR, like Martine de Mazières’ group (Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy) with two FTIRs installed at MAIDO-OPAR, and Nicklaus Kämpfer’s group (University of Bern) with 3 microwave radiometers installed at MAIDO-OPAR ; all previous instruments being involved in the NDACC network.

(6)    Station for Measuring Ecosystem – Atmosphere Relations II (SMR)
Location (town, country):     Juupajoki, Finland
Web site:
Description of the infrastructure: The SMR represents background boreal forest site consisting of main site at scots pine forest and additional flux measurements in wetland fen and boreal lake environments. Continuous measurements since 1995. SMR provide detailed in-situ aerosol and ion physical, chemical and optical characterization 1nm – 20 um, cloud condensation nuclei concentration (total and size segregated), sun photometer (AERONET) for column aerosol burden, ceilometer, cloud radar, Halo Photonics lidar for aerosol vertical profiling, trace gases, greenhouse gases (ICOS), spectrally resolved solar radiation, albedo, radon, external radiation, soil chemistry and dynamics, forest growth from cell level to canopy level, forest physiology (EXPEER), fluxes.
Services currently offered: SMR has hosted around 50 multidisciplinary intensive observation campaigns varying from few weeks to years in duration. The most comprehensive atmospheric in-situ active remote sensing observations by AMF2 mobile facility was in SMEAR in 2014 for 8 months monitoring extensively in-situ aerosol concentrations, their vertical variability and cloud properties and precipitation, which was part of NASA precipitation verification experiment.
All data in SMEAR II is stored in an open, searchable database. Data is open access. SMR staff offers services from research planning, instrument development, technical help and instrument monitoring and maintenance for observations during extended periods. Over 2300 users annually. SMR data has provided novel insights into processes leading to aerosol formation from biogenic sources, aerosol-cloud-climate interactions, and atmosphere-biosphere interactions including e.g. carbon sink, photosynthesis and biogenic emissions of volatile organic vapors. These results are published in over 30 Nature or Science papers.

(7)    Pallas-Sodankylä Global Atmopheric Watch Station
Location (town, country):     Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park, Muonio, Finland
Web site:
Description of the infrastructure: PAL in Finnish Lapland, on the border of the Arctic on a pristine area is a GAW station since 1994. The main station building is located on top of a Sammaltunturi hill, providing a unique possibility for aerosol-cloud interaction studies. Continuous in-situ aerosol measurements, harmonized for GAW/ACTRIS, as number size distributions, optical properties and hygroscopity, and continuous and campaign-based measurements of cloud microphysical properties and EC on snow are available. The chemical components measured are: trace elements, PAH compounds and basic ions analyzed from filter samples and precipitation samples, gaseous mercury and mercury in precipitation, ozone (O3), nitrogendioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and volatile organic compounds, measured using in-situ gas-chromatograph.
Services currently offered: PAL provides access to a site on the close proximity of the Arctic to study transport and aging of aerosols from various sources (Arctic, marine, continental east, long-range transport from Europe). It provides facilities for cloud-aerosol interaction studies with different inlet systems built to collect both whole and interstitial particles during inside-cloud periods. This has been used in regular international Pallas Cloud Experiments (PACE) taking place in autumns. The site supports various measurements by its continuous, long-term aerosol and trace-gas in-situ and remote sensing data series, with the longest ones dating back 20-years in history. The station has facilities for accommodation and transport services, and help in logistics is offered.

(8)    High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch
Location (town, country):     CH-3801 Jungfraujoch, Switzerland
Web site:
Description of the infrastructure: The high alpine research station Jungfraujoch is situated at 3500 m asl in the Swiss Alps. It is the highest research station in Europe that is accessible all year round by rail, and it is the only accessible observation point in Europe with adequate infrastructure that is within the free troposphere most of the year. This special geographical situation offers the opportunity to monitor background concentrations but also to investigate the transport of anthropogenic pollutants from the boundary layer to the free troposphere.
Services currently offered: The Jungfraujoch is involved in more than thirty national and international networks for atmospheric research. The JFJ is one out of the 29 Global GAW stations and one of the most comprehensive stations worldwide. More than 70 gaseous species of reactive gases and greenhouse gases including some of their isotopes are continuously measured together with all aerosol variables recommended by GAW, including physical, optical and chemical properties of the aerosol. The site is also part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC).  Scientific and technical support to users is provided through collaboration with existing research and monitoring activities at the site as well as specifically with PSI and EMPA. A broad range of auxiliary data (e.g. meteorological data) will be made available for interpretation of the data. The Foundation HFSJG provides administrative support (e.g. on customs).  There is custodian couple on duty at the site all year round who help in supervising instrumentation. As a result of this, around 40 articles that describe results obtained at Jungfraujoch appear each year in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

(9)    KNMI – Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR)
Location (town, country):     Lopik, The Netherlands
Web site:
Description of the infrastructure: The CESAR location (213 m high, 50 km far from North sea) is ideal for meteorological research on relations between the atmospheric boundary layer, land surface and weather. The site is also representative for long-term atmospheric studies because surroundings do not differ significantly from those in 1972. CESAR is one of very few observatories around the world that monitors such a wide scope of relevant processes in atmospheric chemistry and physics, hydrology and meteorology.
Services currently offered: The CESAR suite of instruments covers all ACTRIS and ACTRIS follow-up themes. Many of the observations are embedded in networks and benefit from the associated QA/QC protocols and the respective data-bases. The observatory serves as a test bed for new observation techniques, either for the development of new methodologies, algorithms or new instruments.
The observatory offers many possibilities for the training of young scientists. This might be during national and international observation campaigns at the site, PhD programs at universities or as part of EU-funded access programs. The observations are backed-up by experienced researchers.Data collected at CESAR is stored in a database: Typically, one large international campaign is held at the site every other year, e.g. EUCAARI-IMPACT (2008), GEOMON-CINDI (2009), FP7-PEGASOS (2012), etc. in addition to numerous short term visits, about 4 per year.

(10)    TROPOS Research Station Melpitz
Location (town, country):     Melpitz, Germany (12°56’E, 51°32’N, 86 m a.s.l.)
Web site:
Description of the infrastructure: The research site is situated in the typical rural background for East-Germany lowlands in Central Europe. Especially during winter here continental air masses from East are influenced by long-range-transported anthropogenic emissions. The existing size segregated long-time characterization of chemical and physical aerosol properties by offline methods in combination with chemical analysis for ions OC/EC and for specific organic tracers (e.g. PAK, Alkanes, Hopanes with CPP-GCMS, Sugars and sugar alcohols with HPAEC-PAD) and state of the art online methods (e.g. particle number and size distribution, aerosol absorption and scattering coefficient, aerosol mass spectro-meter as HR-ToF-AMS, ACSM and CI-Api-ToF-MS and with MARGA) provides a comprehensive dataset. With the possibility for quantification of vertical aerosol distribution and cloud-aerosol observations (e.g. Multiwavelegth Raman lidar, Sun photometer, Doppler Lidar, cloud radar) Melpitz is a unique research infrastructure in Europe and a perfect site to study changes in atmospheric composition.
Services currently offered: The research site Melpitz is a place for “hands-on” access (e.g. research projects, measurement campaigns, intercomparisons). The following specific research domains served: vertical aerosol distribution, in-situ aerosol properties, trace gases and cloud-aerosol observations. There is a widespread interest for international users (e.g. field experiment HD(CP)2 2013, EMEP measuring campaigns 2012/13, 2008/09, intercomparison OC/EC, 2013). Users will profit from the extraordinary broad range of expertise in tropospheric research by the TROPOS staff. Results of special campaigns can be integrated in long-term series. Quality controlled data have been saved in the IBAS data base. Melpitz and the surrounding are additionally situated for the operation of small aircrafts and helicopters from a nearby airport.

(11)    FINOKALIA  Atmospheric Observatory (FKL)
Location (town, country):     Finokalia, Crete, Greece
Web site:
Description of the infrastructure: The FKL sampling station is situated at Finokalia (35°20'N, 25°40'E ) on the north coast of Crete. The nearest large urban centre is Heraklion with 150 000 inhabitants located 70 km west of Finokalia. The station is located at the top of a hilly elevation (250 m asl) facing the sea within a sector 270° to 90°. No significant human activities occur at a distance shorter than 15 km within the above mentioned sector. The area is characterized by the existence of two well-distinguished seasons: the dry season (from April to September) mainly characterised by increased levels of pollution and biomass burning events and the wet season (from October to April). Important transport from Sahara (S/SW winds; occurrence up to 20%) takes place during the intermediate season (spring and autumn).
Services currently offered: Access to FKL infrastructure has a multitude of strong-points: 1) Address/include the majority of the main activities concerning ACTRIS: e.g., in situ aerosol characterisation (physical, chemical, optical), aerosol 3D distribution (i.e., lidar), gas precursors (VOC, NOxy). 2) It is located in a unique environment: FKL is in the southern most point of Europe, with high insolation which favours photochemical activity and fast processing of aerosols. It is located in an area where climatic impact induced by aerosols is expected to be higher compared to GHGs (especially in summer) and thus the climatic role of aerosols can be studied. 3) Offers to the scientific community a number of state of the art instruments for high quality research including an ACSM and PollyXT multi-wavelength lidar (backscatter Raman depolarization). 4) Disposes the longest time series in the eastern Mediterranean with more than 20 years of continuous operation and measurements of gaseous and aerosols. 5) It is a collocated ACTRIS-ICOS station.

(12)    Košetice-Křešín u Pacova (KOS)
Location (town, country):     Košetice, Czech Republic
Web site:
Flyer: Flyer PDF
The infrastructure, that represents the background level of air quality in the Czech Republic and Central Europe, is administered and operated by three institutions: CHMI operates the Observatory Košetice, Global Change Research Centre operates the Atmospheric and Ecosystem Stations Křešín u Pacova, and Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals operates the special aerosols measurements. The infrastructures form a collocated station and cover both climate and air quality issues. The uniqueness of the infrastructure is based on: collocation of ICOS and ACTRIS stations, long term (27y) air quality measurements at EMEP-GAW station, participation to international programmes and projects. The Atmospheric Station is an open access research infrastructure and access to Central Laboratories of CHMI is provided. A new 250 m tall atmospheric tower constructed primarily for scientific purposes will be made accessible.
Widespread interest of national and international users is demonstrated by numerous visitors at the site yearly (e.g. about 120 in 2013 participants to international school and seminar). Data measured at the co-located station served as a basis of well cited papers (e.g. Aas et al. ACP 2012, Asmi et al. ACP 2011, Dvorská et al. Atmos Env. 2011). Access to following measurements at the infrastructure is offered: in-situ chemical, and physical properties of aerosols (particle number size distribution, aerosol light absorption, aerosol light scattering , OC/EC, size-resolved chemical composition, size-resolved aerosol hygroscopicity), the vertical gradient of GHGs (CO2, CH4, CO, N2O), air quality (O3, Hg) and meteorological parameters at 10, 50, 125, 230 and 250 m, flask sampling of 13C and 18O in CO2, H2, N2O, SF6, O2/N2, CO2, CH4, CO, 14C in CO2 at 250 m, an ecosystem station (eddy covariance system measuring energy and matter fluxes; net radiation, PAR radiation), air quality automatic measurements (NO-NO2-NOx, ozone, SO2, CO, PM10, PM 2,5), air quality manual measurements (VOCs, PAHs, PM10, Base cat-ions, PM 2,5), and precipitation and meteorology measurements.

> More information about KOS

(13)    Izana Subtropical Access Facility (ISAF)
Location (town, country):     Izana mountain (28.3°N, 16.5°W, 2.370 m a.s.l.), Tenerife, The Canary Islands, Spain
Web site:
Description of the infrastructure: Izaña Subtropical Access Facility (ISAF) is a GAW observatory located on a mountaintop at 2370 m.a.s.l. on Tenerife, Canary Islands, most of the time under free-troposphere conditions. The site allows performing in-situ measurements of the NW North Atlantic airflows which may contain species linked to anthropogenic emissions from North America. In summertime Izaña is into the Saharan Air Layer, which brings large amounts of desert dust mixed with minor secondary anthropogenic aerosols. ISAF provides data and scientific added-value on the chemical composition and related physical characteristics of the atmosphere and their trends.
Services currently offered: ISAF is the only existing infrastructure for the observation of the atmosphere located in the free troposphere of the subtropical North Atlantic. Izana offers unique opportunity for studying: African dust transport, Long-range transport of aerosols and pollution: Europe-Africa pollution "exchange" and North America-North Africa atmospheric transport, new particles formation in the subtropical free-troposphere, dust-cloud interaction through ice nuclei and CCN, dust-radiation processes, radiation and aerosols instruments calibration/evaluation, satellite-based products validation and chemical transport and dust models evaluation. Izana provides important ancillary added-value data from other permanent programs (FTIR, Ozone and UV, Greenhouse Gases and Carbon Cycle). ISAF participates in different international networks and atmospheric systems/facilities (ACTRIS, AERONET, BSRN, EAN, E-GVAP, EUBREWNET, EUREF, WMO-GAW, GALION, ICOS, INGOS, MPLNET, NDACC, NOAA/ESRL,  RBCC-E, SDS WAS) providing more than 500 accesses per year to external users.

(14)    GRANADA Atmospheric Observatory (GRA)
Location (town, country):     Granada, Spain
Web site:
Description of the infra-structure: GRA station is located in the city of Granada that is a medium-sized city surrounded by mountains of high elevation. North Africa constitutes a significant source of mineral matter, especially during spring and summer when desert dust outbreaks affect the area more frequently. The availability of monitoring sites at different elevations at the close slopes of Sierra Nevada Mountains offers a unique opportunity for the combination of remote sounding and in-situ techniques. This is an added value for validation of vertical profiles of aerosol microphysical properties retrieved by inversion of remote sensing data and for PBL-free troposphere interactions studies. This special geographical situation offers the opportunity to monitor background concentrations but also to investigate the transport of anthropogenic pollutants from the boundary layer to the free troposphere.
Services currently offered:  The station is well-equipped for the study of the relative humidity growth effects using in-situ techniques with tandem nephelometers and combining remote sensing techniques like LIDAR, MW radiometers and all sky imagers. Different instruments for the measurement of the absorption coefficient based on the transmission method are continuously run at the UGR station (MAAP, PSAP, AE31 and AE33). These systems can be deployed during special campaigns at mountain sites where it is possible to measure the direct impact of mineral dust plume coming from North Africa.  The station also includes some mobile systems, like a scanning Raman Lidar with depolarization suitable to be deployed during special campaigns at the ICOS experimental site operated by the group, where it is possible to measure the particles fluxes using eddy covariance. Along the last years scientist from different EU and non-EU countries developed their research activity in our station with an average of 2 visitors per year with stays that last around 2 weeks.

(15)    CSIC Montseny (MSY)
Location (town, country):     Montseny, Barcelona, Spain
Web site:;
Description of the infra-structure:Montseny site (MSY, 720 ,m a.s.l), NE Spain, is operated by IDAEA CSIC in collaboration with the Catalan Government. It is a well-equipped site for in-situ characterization of aerosols (optical, physical, and chemical offline and online -ACSM) and trace gases (NOx, SO2, O3, CO). In-situ measurements are complemented by columnar (CIMEL sun photometer) and profile measurements (LIDAR) carried out by UPC and BSC in Barcelona (40 km from MSY). Measurements at this site are complemented by measurements routinely performed at the other CSIC sites: Montsec (MSC, 1600 m a.s.l., 140 km from Barcelona) and Barcelona (BCN, 70 m a.s.l.) urban background monitoring site. Data and instruments operating at the BCN and MSC satellite sites will be available for the visiting scientist improving and facilitating the interpretation of results, and permitting to connect air quality and climate research.
Services currently offered:In-situ ground measurements at the MSY CSIC site started in 2002. Since 2008, as MSY formed part of EUSAAR, the number of measured parameters notably increased. Since 2014 the site has been improved including a country house permitting to offer accommodation for external scientist and instruments and also the performing of training and summer courses.
The WMB is an area of growing interest in atmospheric research. Two major international campaigns were organized by CSIC carried out at the MSY site in the recent years are: 1) DAURE–2009 ( , Pandolfi M, et al. JGR-Atmospheres (2014) and 2) SAPUSS -2010, (Dall'osto M., et al.ACP (2013). MSY has benn involve in other international campaigns such as those organized by EMEP and CHARMEX.
Despite the relatively short history, there are, so far, more than 30 scientific articles published in scientific journals of high quality, based on results obtained at the site.

(16)    Hyltemossa (HTM)
Location (town, country):     Southern Sweden; Nearest small town: Perstorp; Municipality: Klippan; Province: Skåne; Country: Sweden (56° 5' 52" N, 13°25' 8" E; 18.5 km ENE of current ACTRIS site Vavihill.)
Web site:;
Description of the infra-structure: During 2014-2015, ULUND will move all aerosol research activities from our current ACTRIS site Vavihill to the newly established ICOS-Sweden site at Hyltemossa in southern Sweden (56° 5' 52" N, 13°25' 8" E, 18.5 km ENE of Vavihill). The collocation of ICOS and ACTRIS observational capabilities at Hyltemossa will offer a comprehensive infrastructure that is essential for studying the multiple and tightly interlinked processes that control the land ecosystem – atmosphere – climate system. The site is unique in the sense that it is situated in a highly productive and well-managed 35 years old Norway spruce forest (Picea abies), representing typical Northern European forest management conditions aiming mainly to optimize commercial yields. The air masses and pollution levels at Hyltemossa are very similar to those at the present ACTRIS site Vavihill. First TNA access to the site is January 2016.
Services currently offered: A 150 m high tower was erected in March 2014 at the Hyltemossa forest site, and installation of ICOS instrumentation and sensors will be finalized and made fully operational during 2014. ICOS measurements at the Hyltemossa tall tower include profiles of CO2, CH4, CO and H2O, radiation balance, eddy covariance fluxes of CO2, H2O, heat and momentum and various soil properties. The aerosol instrumentation for continuous measurements are: PM10/PM2.5, aerosol size distributions (AIS, DMPS, APS), absorption (Aethalometer, MAAP) and scattering (nephelometer), cloud activation (CCNC), and OC/EC. Gas measurements include NO/NO2 and O3. OC/EC filter samples are also analyzed for organic tracers and 14C for organic aerosol source apportionment. Campaign-wise measurements of aerosol chemical composition (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS with a Soot Photometer), VOC (PTR-ToF-MS), Aerosol particle density (DMA-APM), and hygroscopicity (H-TDMA). The site will also be equipped with a multi-wavelength Raman depolarization LIDAR that will operated according to ACTRIS/EARLINET procedures. Data from the EUSAAR/ACTRIS site Vavihill has been extensively used over the years, resulting in 35 peer-reviewed journal publications between 2007–2014, one of which in Nature Geoscience.

(17)    Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory (CAO)
Location (town, country):     Agia Marina Xyliatou, Nicosia district, Cyprus
Web site:
Flyer: Flyer PDF
Description of the infra-structure: The Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory in Agia Marina Xyliatou (35.04N–33.06E) is a remote inland monitoring station at 532 m a.s.l. The station has been placed in such a way that it is not influenced by agglomerations or industrial sites in its vicinity. The closest city is Nicosia to the northeast of the station at a distance of 30km. Its unique location provides representative observations of the of transboundary pollution levels. Especially during autumn and springtime, frequent dust events occurrences are recorded in the area.

Services currently offered:1) Process studies in atmospheric chemistry and physics based on a unique set of state-of-the-art complete instrumentation for aerosol and trace-gases (including precursors) monitoring composing of a Q-ACSM, an OPC (GRIMM), a nephelometer 3L (TSI), two aethalometers (AE31), a SMPS (GRIMM), a MAAP, O3, NOy, SO2, CO, BTEX analyzers, TEOM analyzer, Gravimetric particulate matter sampling (PM1, PM2.5, PM10), meteorological parameters, and wet and dry deposition collectors. 2) Access to a long database of trace gases and aerosols and relevant studies (e.g. Kalabokas et al., 2008; Middleton et al., 2008; Querol et al., 2009; Moussiopoulos et al., 2012; Kleanthous et al., 2014). 3) A unique environment for observations of air masses of various origin and chemical composition. 4) Collocated vertical profiles of trace gases and aerosol physicochemical properties with the use of unmanned aerial vehicles –UAV- depending on their availability at the time of measurements. The station has been intergrated into the WMO-GAW network as a regional station

(18) Mace Head Research Station (MHD)
Location (town, country):     Carna, County Galway, Ireland
Web site:
Description of the infra-structure: Mace Head is Europe’s premier marine-based atmospheric observing infrastructure. Approximately 50% of the time it encounters the cleanest background marine air entering into Europe and the other 50% it encounters continental export of pollution into the Atlantic region.  It is a GAW global station and an EMEP supersite as well as being in the AGAGE network. Its suite of measurements including in-situ aerosol physics, chemistry, radiative properties; remote sensing of atmospheric structure, optical properties, aerosols, clouds, cloud microphysics etc. in terms of gases, it routinely monitors greenhouse gases, CFC/HFC, reactive gases (O3, sulphuric acid, OH, NOx) along with meteorological parameters.
Services currently offered: MHD provides operation data products every which are webcast every 10 minutes.  Uniquely, MHD provides realtime aerosol mass spectrometry for aerosol source apportionment and chemical characterisation, realtime cloud-microphysics products using the NUIG-developed SYRSOC retrieval mechanism, realtime vertical profiles of aerosols, along with in-situ CCN, hygroscopic growth, and aerosol microphysics.  These realtime datastream products enable users to have unique access to all the relevant parameters in the aerosol-clouds-radiation system.  The MHD datasystem allows access from all platforms including PDA for streaming data to RAID storage databases with capacity currently in excess of 100TB. In addition, the MHD website operationally calculates and stores 6 hourly air mass back-trajectories and provides its own (NUIG) meteorological and air quality forecasts to facilitate field-experiment management.